Category — Birds
If you are a frequent visitor to the Zoo, you might have noticed a new addition to our Andean condor exhibit as of late. With the tremendous help of some extremely dedicated volunteers, the Aviculture Department was able to research, help build, and install a nesting chamber for our breeding pair of Andean condors.
Background on the birds:
Like other vultures, Andean condors act as nature’s recyclers! Befitting their role of scavengers, condors have several physical adaptations to help them clean up the environment. Their strong, hooked beaks aid in holding and ripping food, while the lack of a well-feathered head minimizes contamination when dining upon carcasses. Not-so-obvious on the outside, the condor’s extremely strong and resilient digestive system is able to break down bone to obtain much-needed calcium as well as to kill the toxic bacteria that cause anthrax and botulism. All of these facets certainly reveal the condor’s important role in maintaining healthy, well-balanced environments.
Like many other long-lived (over 70 years) and slow-breeding (one chick every other year) species, however, the Andean condor is having some trouble keeping its own population in balance in the wild. It was first listed by CITES as endangered on July 1, 1975. Andean condors are currently listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. This species historically had a significant range in South America, from Colombia and Venezuela to the Strait of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego. They are exceedingly rare in the northern ranges of South America, and are most frequently sighted in Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile and Argentina. The condor is still subject to persecution by poisoning and gunshot over most of its home range, and it has been historically difficult to monitor the population in the wild according to the AZA Andean Condor Care Manual (2010).
The Cincinnati Zoo has participated in conservation efforts involving both the Andean condor and its even rarer cousin, the California condor, since 1989. Along with participating in the captive breeding program, the Zoo has also served as a staging area for North American-hatched Andean condors destined for release in their native country of Colombia. Juvenile condors and breeding pairs are housed at our off-site facility where they are conditioned for release into the wild. In the summer of 2013, a breeding pair of Andean condors was transported from the Zoo’s off-site facility to Miami, Florida, where they boarded a plane bound for Colombia. We have been ecstatic to hear reports from the Andean Condor Species Survival Plan that birds we have held here at the Zoo have produced chicks in the wild!
How can we increase the chances our condors here in Cincinnati will have a family of their own? Both of our birds – “Laurel” and “Gryph” – celebrated their 32nd birthdays this past June, so they are well within breeding age. They have lived in their display overlooking Wildlife Canyon since 2008, so should be well-settled. (Note: They first came to us when they were very young, left the Zoo in 1998, and then returned to us in 2008.) Since that time, we have recorded a lot of success with pair-bonding and copulating, and even with laying at least one egg per year, but unfortunately this pair has never successfully hatched out and raised a chick.
The idea of building a large protective nesting box that could mimic the wild cliffside caves the birds prefer as well as reduce the chances of egg breakage during the incubation process was formulated.
Background on the box:
Andean condors typically stand around four feet tall and can weigh up to 33 pounds. Thanks to its massive wingspan of 10.5 feet, this species can rightly claim the title of the largest flying land bird in the Western Hemisphere. Taking their overall size, enormous wingspan, and hooked flesh-tearing beak all into consideration, I knew this would need to be –by far– the largest and strongest nesting box we had ever embarked upon the creation of here at the Cincinnati Zoo!
Research and guidance provided by Aviculture Curator Robert Webster was critical in the development of a blueprint for our new Condor Condo. With a game plan in place, lumber, hardware and stain was purchased and transported to our most crafty carpenter, Mr. Bill Rettig, one of the Zoo’s Bird House and Manatee dive volunteers extraordinaire.
Bill worked out of his basement and garage during the construction process, while his wife generously gave up her indoor parking space! He also enlisted the help of several other family members and neighbors in the nest box building and installation process. Lucky for him, there are several engineers and mathematicians in the family. With the completed project weighing in easily over 300 lbs and measuring over six feet wide and six feet tall, this was truly a group effort!
What the keepers will be looking for this winter:
As part of their mating rituals, Andean condors typically perform courtship displays such as walking back and forth with outstretched wings and making hissing and clucking sounds. The male usually initiates this ritualized courtship display, approaching the female with his body upright, his neck arched, inflated and more intensely flushed with red, and with his wings fully open in a forward-curving arc. He walks stiffly, swaying from side to side. Initially he may make a hissing sound, similar to air brakes on a truck, followed by a deep, repetitive drumming sound that has been compared to a helicopter. If the female is interested, she will remain near him and may bite at his neck or wings, although not aggressively. Females may also engage in the wings-out courtship display, although typically not as elaborately or for as long as the male.
Andean condors are sequentially monogamous in the wild, often remaining with the same mate indefinitely. Eggs may be laid between March and June and fertility for established pairs is typically very high. Males and females share both egg incubation and chick rearing duties roughly equally. The egg incubation period for this species is 58-62 days.
Special thanks to Bill for his undying enthusiasm for this project, and his family for jumping in to help without question, even though nest box installation was a stinky, sweaty, tough job! Ultimately, success in collective Andean condor management and care will allow AZA-accredited institutions to contribute to Andean condor conservation and to ensure that Andean condors are helping to clean up the Earth we all share for generations to come.
September 23, 2014 No Comments
We’ve been busy! Here’s an update on various projects and events we’ve been working on surrounding the commemoration of the centennial of the passenger pigeon’s extinction on September 1:
Passenger Pigeon Memorial Renovation
The Passenger Pigeon Memorial itself is of historic importance. Built for the September 18, 1875 opening of the Zoo, it is the last remaining in a series of seven rectangular pagoda-type, tile-roofed buildings connected by wire summer cages in a complex 320 feet long, known as the Aviary or “Old Bird Run.” The center building, larger than the others, was more elaborate, with pediments on each facade, and a short square tower capped with a pseudo-onion dome. The six smaller units of the Aviary were demolished in 1974-75. The large central pavilion, which was the actual final home of Martha, was retained, moved about 50 feet northwest of its original location, and restored as the Passenger Pigeon Memorial, opening in 1977. Collectively with the Zoo’s Reptile House – the nation’s oldest Zoo building – and the Elephant House, built in 1906, the Passenger Pigeon Memorial constitutes the Zoo’s designation as a National Historic Landmark.
A reproduction of John Ruthven’s recently completed painting of Martha – the Last Passenger Pigeon, will draw visitors’ attention from the main Zoo path.
Inside the building, updated lighting and ceiling treatment will brighten up the space. All new interpretive signage will comprise flat wall panels featuring rich visual images and appropriate narrative.
Artifacts such as a net and stool pigeon and wood carvings of a pair of passenger pigeons by our own Gary Denzler will be presented in the exhibit as well.
The update will speak to the conservation of endangered species, using the story of the passenger pigeon as a lesson from the past for a sustainable future. First, it will explain the story of the passenger pigeon and its extinction, why it happened, and the scope of this loss. Next, the exhibit will describe how the passenger pigeon’s extinction was a wake-up call that spurred the conservation movement in America, highlighting the stories of native species that were nearly lost, such as white-tailed deer. Then, the exhibit will present examples of species’ conservation efforts in which the Zoo is involved, including the Sumatran rhino and Autumn buttercup. Finally, the exhibition will invite visitors to get involved.
The dedication of the newly renovated exhibit will take place on September 1 beginning at 12:30.
Fold the Flock: Paper Pigeons
We are in the midst of a folding frenzy! Thousands of paper passenger pigeons are being folded by summer campers, visitors, staff and volunteers, which will be suspended from the ceiling of the Education Center at the Zoo later this month.
Add your pigeon to the flock! Download the foldable passenger pigeon template, print it off (double-sided, 11 X 17, full color is best) and fold it. Then send it or bring it to the Education Center at the Zoo to be hung with thousands of others before September 1.
Passenger Pigeon Memorial Weekend
Along with the Ohio Ornithological Society (OOS), the Zoo is hosting a Passenger Pigeon Weekend symposium at the Zoo on August 29 & 30. Friday night will be a “Martinis with Martha” fundraiser to benefit the Zoo’s Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW) and the OOS Conservation Fund with food, drinks, live music and guest presentations. Saturday morning brings an assemblage of guest speakers with stories about lessons learned from the passenger pigeon, including Joel Greenberg (author of A Feathered River Across the Sky), wildlife artist John Ruthven, Jim McCormac (author of Wild Ohio: The Best of our Natural Heritage) and Zoo Horticulturist Brian Jorg. And much, much more!
Registration is now open! Purchase your tickets here.
Barrows Conservation Lecture Series
On September 3, wildlife artist John Ruthven will speak as part of the Barrows Conservation Lecture Series at the Zoo. John Ruthven, naturalist, author, lecturer, and internationally acknowledged master of wildlife art, is often called the “20th Century Audubon.”
In 1974, John spearheaded the effort to save the last of the Zoo’s 19th Century bird pagoda’s – the one where “Martha,” the last of the passenger pigeons, had once lived. Through his leadership, and the sale of prints of his painting of “Martha,” the Zoo’s Passenger Pigeon Memorial was created.
Today, John has taken it a giant step forward, with his painting, “Martha – The Last Passenger Pigeon.” This print will be available for sale before and after his lecture. The price is $200.00. All prints are signed and numbered. The size is 30 x 20 inches.
Purchase tickets to John Ruthven’s lecture here.
To read the other posts in this series, click here.
August 25, 2014 No Comments
Contributors: Jackie Bray, Jenna Wingate, & Wendy Rice
Happy National Zoo Keeper Week! During the week beginning on the third Sunday in July each year, zoos nationwide honor animal care professionals and the work they do in animal care, conservation, and education. There are approximately 6,000 animal care professionals in the United States. Throughout this week, we’d like to introduce you to several of our outstanding keepers here at the Cincinnati Zoo.
Meet Aviculture Keeper, Kim Klosterman
Kim works as a keeper in our aviculture department. Her dedication and work ethic are inspiring, and her devotion to the animals in her care is evident in all that she does. Kim goes out of her way to make sure her animals receive the highest standard of care, even if it means late nights or extra work. She often builds nest boxes and special enrichment items for the animals on her own time. And she is always positive, passionate and polite.
Though Kim’s knowledge and understanding of aviculture is already extensive, she spends many hours researching best practices in husbandry, disease management and reproduction. By implementing the most up-to-date practices, Kim has been integral in several important breakthroughs in the reproduction and health care management of rare species.
In addition to her role as keeper, Kim is a passionate and productive warrior for the in-situ conservation of several avian species, most notably the kea (a parrot from New Zealand). Through grant writing, keeper chats, kea encounters and collaborations with other organizations and zoo departments, she has helped raise thousands of dollars that have made significant positive impacts on wild kea populations. Kim’s leadership has dramatically increased U.S. support for kea conservation and has helped form international collaborations that will likely change the direction of future captive management policies of the species. She is also largely responsible for our incredible new interactive kea exhibit that is receiving national and international attention. This exhibit sets a new standard for up-close, personal interactions with the animals and increases awareness and financial support for conservation initiatives.
July 21, 2014 1 Comment