Category — Cats
For all of you who have been pining to meet the cubs and lamenting that they aren’t on exhibit, allow me to offer a small consolation: lion cubs this young are actually a little bit boring! Now, before you gasp at my impassivity, allow me to explain. In the wild, lions are inactive for up to 20 hours a day. That means there are only 4 hours a day where lions aren’t sleeping or resting. What I’ve learned in the 3 weeks following November 13th is that lion cubs and nursing mothers are even less exciting! For 3 weeks, we’ve seen little more than nursing, sleeping and grooming from our young little bunch. But in this last week (the cubs’ 4th week of life), something magical has started to happen.
The cubs are finally becoming more mobile and a little braver, and with these new developments, their little personalities are beginning to shine through! Since their sexes are still a mystery to us, we’ve been referring to the cubs based on their birth order (Cub #1 was the first born, then came Cub #2 followed by Cub #3). Here are some of my observations of the newest members of our African lion pride.
Cub #1: Fearless Leader, Bold and Stubborn
Cub #1 was the first into the world and has continued to be the pioneer of the group ever since. Cub #1 has always appeared to be the largest of the 3, and it’s hands-down the bravest in the bunch. #1 mastered the art of crawling outside of the nest area first, scaling the hackberry log and sometimes tumbling head-first to the ground below in order to gain unchallenged access to Imani for some prime nursing time and one-on-one attention from “Mama”.
Cub #1 is the most vocal of the bunch as well, often standing on the hackberry log and just crying out to anyone who’ll listen. Sometimes Cub #1 will do this vocalizing immediately after a private nursing session, so I’m inclined to think that maybe it just likes to hear itself make noise? Imani seems to be the toughest on Cub #1, often batting it around and almost “playing” with it in a manner she doesn’t usually employ with the other two. But Cub #1 can absolutely handle the tough-love and isn’t shy about letting mom know if it isn’t appreciated. Cub #1 seems very strong-willed and stubborn, relentlessly pursuing its interests even when Imani tries her best to keep #1 safely inside of the straw nesting area. And on more than one occasion, I’ve caught Cub #1 chewing on Imani’s tail. :) If genetics play any role in the development of personality, then Cub #1’s independence is most definitely from Imani’s side of the gene pool.
Cub #2: The Pacifist, Easy-Going and Low-Maintenance
Cub #2 flew under the keepers’ radars for a good long while, not really standing out for any reasons (good or bad). Cub #2 seems to contribute the least to Imani’s parental challenges, often staying put wherever it’s placed and waiting patiently for Imani to return to the nest. Cub #2 rarely calls to or seeks out Imani and simply takes the opportunity to nurse whenever it’s readily available. Cub #2 patiently accepts being groomed and never resists when Imani attempts to pick it up. Whenever a skirmish breaks out between siblings over a nipple, Cub #2 is the most likely to compromise by relocating to another teat. “It’s okay, I’ll just go nurse from this nipple instead.”
Cub #2 rarely strays away from the group and seems the most dependent upon the companionship of its siblings. I watched once as Cub #2 was awoken from a nap by the sounds of Cub #1 nursing outside of the nest box. Cub #2 got up to investigate and stopped on top of the hackberry log, staring in the direction of Imani and Cub #1. It looked like #2 was trying to gather the courage to go over the log and join the nursing party, but after a couple of feeble attempts to make it over the log, #2 simply gave up and went back to nap beside the warmth and comfort of its other sibling. Adventurous is not a word I’d use to describe #2. Cub #2’s affinity for companionship and its penchant for the safe and familiar remind me very much of John!
Cub #3: Scrappy Underdog, The Come-Back Kid!
Cub #3 has been on my radar from the moment it was born. Easily the runt of the litter, #3 has had some struggles from the beginning. Unlike its siblings who picked up nursing quite easily, Cub #3 really had to practice and develop the skill-set. Keepers would watch as Cub #3 would set out in the direction of Imani and its nursing siblings, and unnervingly, in many cases, Cub #3 would struggle to make it to a teat. Sometimes it would randomly turn and start heading in another direction, and sometimes it would make it all the way up to Imani’s belly, only to keep going and climb up and over her back instead of stopping to nurse. On most occasions when Cub #3 did manage to find itself in the correct position to nurse, it would fight for an already occupied nipple instead of latching on to one of the two readily available ones.
We watched apprehensively as Cub #3 struggled, but it always seemed to manage some quality nursing time every day. To our relief, Cub #3 slowly began to get the knack of nursing and began to catch up to its siblings in growth and development. Though Cub #3 still fights for already occupied nipples, it seems to have developed an effective technique to win the prized teat. By sticking its paw in a sibling’s face and pushing them out of the way, Cub #3 has often avoided the unpleasant task of warming up his own nipple for nursing. ;) Cub #3 is usually always the “last one to the party” sleeping in instead of getting up to nurse, and sometimes electing to climb over top of Mama and its siblings instead of taking its turn being groomed. From what I’ve seen, Cub #3 is its own beautiful blend of both parents.
Boys or Girls?
We still aren’t certain of the cubs’ sexes because the keepers aren’t handling them unnecessarily at this time. Accurately sexing young felids can be tricky, so we don’t want to make any false reports (but I do have my guesses for each cub!). In all likeliness, the cubs will have their first round of vaccines and their first wellness checks at approximately 8 weeks of age, and we’ll be able to sex the cubs at that time as well. This should give us all something to look forward to mid-January, and maybe John can help us with the big gender reveals!! Stay tuned and as always, thank you so much for all of your love and support! Happy Holidays from Imani, John, Cubs 1, 2, and 3 and the Africa team keepers!
December 13, 2014 12 Comments
Today, on International Cheetah Day, we celebrate the fastest animal on land by introducing you to our ambassador cheetahs and how they help spread awareness about cheetah conservation.
Our cheetah ambassadors work with their trainers at the Cat Ambassador Program (CAP), educating more than 150,000 people a year about the importance of cheetahs and other wild cat predators. From April to October, Zoo guests can witness cheetahs running and other wild cats performing natural behaviors during Cheetah Encounter shows. During the school year, CAP staff introduces students to cheetahs and small wild cats during assembly programs.
At 14 years old, Sara is our most experienced ambassador and still enjoys running during shows. In fact, she is the “fastest cheetah in captivity” as she was clocked running 100 meters in 5.95 seconds last summer during a National Geographic photo shoot. Watch the behind-the-scenes video here.
Born at the DeWildt Breeding Center in South Africa in 2004, Bravo and Chance came to us when they were six months old. They remain a coalition here, as brother cheetahs often stick together in the wild, and are our only cheetahs housed together. They spend more time in our Africa exhibit yard than the other cheetahs.
Tommy T was born at the Zoo’s off-site Cheetah Breeding Facility in 2008 and is named after Tom Tenhundfeld, the lead keeper at the facility. He was raised with Pow Wow (the dog), and was featured in the November 2012 issue of National Geographic Magazine. He even made the cover!
Nia Faye was also born at our Breeding Facility in 2009. We affectionately call her our “wild child”. She took a lot of work, but she is a great ambassador and is rivaling Sara in speed.
Born in 2012, Savanna is our youngest ambassador. She was the cheetah featured with Zoo Director, Thane Maynard, on the Today Show to promote our partnership with National Geographic Magazine. Watch the video here.
Supporting Cheetah Conservation
In addition to spreading awareness, the CAP also collects donations for The Angel Fund to support cheetah conservation. For 12 years, Cat Ambassador Program founder Cathryn Hilker and a cheetah named Angel worked together to educate people about cheetahs. Established in Angel’s memory in 1992, The Angel Fund raises funds to support a variety of cheetah conservation projects committed to saving cheetahs both in captivity and in the wild. Over the years, the Zoo and The Angel Fund has supported and participated in many cheetah conservation field projects, including but not limited to the following programs.
- Cheetah Outreach is a community-based education program based in South Africa that conducts school presentations with ambassador cheetahs as well as teacher workshops. Cheetah Outreach also breeds Anatolian shepherd dogs and places them on South African farms to guard livestock in an effort to reduce conflict between farmers and predators.
- The Ruaha Carnivore Project works with local communities to help develop effective conservation strategies for large carnivores in Tanzania. The mission is being achieved through targeted research and monitoring, mitigation of threats, mentorship, training and community outreach.
- Cheetah Conservation Botswana aims to preserve the nation’s cheetah population through scientific research, community outreach and education, working with rural communities to promote coexistence with Botswana’s rich diversity of predator species.
A Leader in Cheetah Breeding
With inspiration and support from The Angel Fund, the Zoo also has become a leader in captive cheetah breeding. Since 2002, 41 cubs have been produced at the Zoo’s off-site Cheetah Breeding Facility in Clermont County. The Zoo is one of nine AZA-accredited institutions that participate in a cheetah Breeding Center Coalition (BCC). Working closely with the Cheetah Species Survival Plan, the BCC’s goal is to create a sustainable cheetah population that will prevent extinction of the world’s fastest land animal.
You Can Help
Want to help us save cheetahs? Consider donating to The Angel Fund!
December 4, 2014 1 Comment
Welcoming Two New Post-Doctoral Fellows
Two new post-doctoral fellows, Dr. Lindsey Vansandt and Dr. Anne-Catherine Vanhove, were welcomed to CREW in the fall of 2014.
With funding support from the Joanie Bernard Foundation, Dr. Vansandt will be working with Dr. Bill Swanson, CREW’s Director of Animal Research. Dr. Vansandt obtained her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from the University of Missouri and her Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Maryland (in collaboration with the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute). Her Ph.D. studies focused on characterization and propagation of spermatogonial stem cells in domestic cats as a model for conserving endangered cat species. Dr. Vansandt also has experience working in veterinary emergency services. At CREW, she will be conducting studies to improve the health and welfare of feral and shelter cats as well as helping to apply oviductal AI for propagation of endangered felids.
With funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Dr. Vanhove will be evaluating survival of plant samples in CREW’s Frozen Garden under the supervision of Dr. Valerie Pence, Director of Plant Research. Dr. Vanhove will complete the second phase of the IMLS project, focusing primarily on the survival of shoot tips and gametophytes after long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. She recently received her Ph.D. from the Division of Crop Biotechnics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, in Leuven, Belgium. Her thesis work with meristem culture, stress physiology, and cryopreservation makes her well suited for the IMLS project.
The University of Cincinnati/Cincinnati Zoo Connection
CREW has had a long-standing collaborative relationship with the University of Cincinnati’s (UC) Department of Biological Sciences, but today it is strengthened by two promising young scientists who split their time between CREW and UC. Corrina DeLorenzo and Megan Philpott are both enrolled in UC’s Ph.D. program under Drs. Ken Petren and Theresa Culley, respectively, but they are conducting much of their dissertation research at CREW.
Corrina earned her bachelor’s degree at Miami University, with a double major in Zoology and Environmental Science. As an undergraduate, she became involved in research evaluating the population genetics of the Italian wall lizard or “Lazarus lizard” in the Cincinnati area. After graduating, Corrina was accepted to CREW’s summer internship program, working with Dr. Erin Curry on the Polar Bear Signature Project. She was recruited into UC’s graduate program in January 2014. Since starting her Ph.D. research, Corrina has identified multiple antibodies that detect specific proteins in polar bear feces in an effort to develop a polar bear pregnancy test.
Megan received her bachelor’s degree from UC in Biology and was also an intern at the Cincinnati Museum Center, managing the Museum’s Philippine Bird Genetics project. Her Ph.D. research is part of the Plant Lab’s IMLS funded project to evaluate samples that have been stored for years in CREW’s CryoBioBank for genetic changes that might have occurred over time. In April, Megan was awarded the Botanical Society of America’s Public Policy award to attend Congressional Visits Day on Capitol Hill. There, she learned about communicating science to policy makers and met with the offices of Ohio Senators and Representatives to request their support for increased federal funding of scientific research, using CREW’s research as an example of the importance of federal funding and support. (Students supported by the UC Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Museum and Library Services and CREW Eisenberg Fellowship.)
P&G Wildlife Conservation Scholars
In 2011, CREW established a partnership with the Ohio State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine to train veterinary students in conservation sciences with funding support from Procter & Gamble Pet Care. This past summer, two OSU veterinary students, Kelly Vollman and JaCi Johnson, were selected as P&G Wildlife Conservation Scholars.
Kelly worked with Dr. Monica Stoops analyzing urinary testosterone and glucocorticoid concentrations to determine if the pattern of excretion could be used to predict gender, parturition date and assess fetal viability during Indian rhino gestation. Kelly analyzed urine samples collected throughout seven Indian rhino pregnancies that resulted in three male and four female calves. Six of the pregnancies ended with the birth of live calves, whereas one pregnancy ended in a stillbirth, a relatively common occurrence in this rhino species. By learning more about the endocrinology of pregnancy, results from Kelly’s study will help establish physiological markers to improve pregnancy outcome in this species.
JaCi worked with Dr. Bill Swanson to investigate cat sperm vitrification as an alternative to standard slow freezing methods. Vitrification involves ultra-rapid cooling to avoid ice crystal formation and form a “glass” instead. For this study, JaCi collected semen from domestic cats (and one ocelot) and compared vitrification in a sucrose solution, with direct pelleting in liquid nitrogen, to slow freezing with glycerol in straws over liquid nitrogen vapor. Post-thaw sperm motility and acrosome status were similar between methods and 25% of domestic cat oocytes were fertilized following insemination with vitrified
sperm. This simplified approach to cat semen preservation may be particularly useful for field biologists working with felids in the wild.
November 21, 2014 No Comments