Category — Conservation
The loss of our female Sumatran rhino “Suci” to iron storage disease just over a year ago on March 30, 2014 was a devastating blow to the Cincinnati Zoo’s Sumatran rhino breeding program. Iron storage disease is an insidious disease affecting many wildlife species that are maintained in zoos, ranging from marine mammals to birds. In addition to Sumatran rhinos, black rhinos are susceptible to the disease, whereas white rhinos and Indian rhinos remain largely unaffected.
The disease is extremely challenging because we do not know how to prevent it, diagnose it or treat it. The only known cure for the disease is frequent, large volume phlebotomies (blood collection), but nobody knows how much blood to draw or how often it must be removed to keep a rhino healthy, and it is difficult to perform phlebotomies without anesthesia. The best method for monitoring iron storage disease is to measure serum concentrations of ferritin, a protein involved in iron transport and storage, but ferritin can be species-specific, so an assay for humans or horses may not work accurately in rhinos. Such was the case with our Sumatran rhinos.
However, thanks to a dear family committed to helping rhinos that wanted to make a gift in honor of Suci, CREW has embarked on a new study to develop an assay specific for measuring rhino ferritin. The first step – isolating the rhino ferritin protein – is complete, and our goal is to have a functional assay by this coming summer. Our hope is that the assay will be used to monitor iron storage status in many rhinos throughout North American zoos to ensure the disease is detected before the rhino becomes sick.
This project was made possible by the generous donation of Mr. and Mrs. Jeremy S. Hilton and Family.
(Reprinted from CREW Review Fall 2014)
April 3, 2015 4 Comments
I’ve put off writing this blog for a long time because I knew it would be a challenge. Early on, telling the cubs apart was much easier. Willa (the smallest of the bunch by far) had 4 very distinctive markings along her lower back. Uma was the largest and also the lightest in color. Kya was easy to distinguish because she matched Uma in size, but was much darker in color. Additionally, their vastly different personalities paired with whatever they were doing in the moment helped us to determine which cub we were looking at most of the time.
But as the cubs grew, their size differences began to diminish as Willa (our runt) caught up to her sisters. Additionally, the dark markings (which help to camouflage the cubbies as they hide from predators) began to blend together or fade. All three cubs’ coats took on very similar appearances. And I began to feel a little bit panicky about accurately identifying each cub. What kind of lion keeper can’t tell her lions apart? Honestly. Maybe I should just fill out my own pink slip to save myself some of the embarrassment.
Each day, I watched the cubs closely and took photos from every angle. I edited the pictures like a crazy person… zooming and cropping, changing the shading and the contrast, always looking for some clearly distinguishing features I could share with all of you. I would cheer for joy when I thought I’d nailed down an identifier but was quickly dejected when I realized that the same feature was actually present on another cub as well. Sometimes a new marking would appear (on the bridge of the nose for example), and it would turn out to be a wet spot that would dry and disappear. This was proving to be a very difficult task.
Fortunately, Willa stands apart from her sisters in a couple of real, but not-so-obvious ways. I can always seem to pick Willa out of the crowd because of her eyes. There is something very unique and distinctive about her eyes that is very different from her sisters’. They have an apprehensive, almost forlorn quality to them (a characteristic all too familiar from looking at John for the last few years).
Additionally, Willa has maintained her slightly darker coat color, and her cautious personality has persisted into her adolescence. If someone’s hanging back and staying close to Mom or Dad, it’s probably Willa. If someone’s over-reacting about a perceived threat (like a feather duster), it’s probably Willa. By pairing her personality with her very distinguishing eyes, Willa is easily the least challenging to identify.
But Uma and Kya are a different story. At one point, I even considered the possibility that Uma and Kya might be identical twins. That theory alleviated some of the feelings of inadequacy I was experiencing, but didn’t solve my problem. I still had 2 cubs that were VERY difficult to tell apart, and I had to figure it out soon before their few distinguishing features disappeared completely.
Fortunately for me, someone much smarter than myself figured out a long time ago that lions can be identified by their entirely unique whisker patterns. Just like our fingerprints (which are completely unique to us), a lion’s whisker pattern is completely unique to that lion and will never change over the course of its lifetime. In fact, this is the method utilized by researchers to identify different wild lions (especially with camera trap images). You can learn more about how wild lions are identified here.
So all that’s left to do is analyze some high-quality images of our girls and determine the unique whisker patterns of each. The picture of Uma shown below is a good example. The whisker spots on the right side of her face are clearly visible, and we can see 2 distinct whisker spots in the top row (or the identification row). When compared with the second row of whiskers (or the “reference row”), we see that the two whisker spots on top row line up almost perfectly with the 3rd and 4th whisker spots on the second row, forming a little square. This is unique to Uma and will serve as a full-proof method of identification for the rest of her life.
For the sake of comparison, a picture of Kya is shown below. Again, the whisker spots on the right side of her face are clearly visible, and, like Uma, we can see 2 distinct whisker spots in the top row. However, when compared with the second row of whiskers, we see that the two whisker spots on top row lay just on either side of the 4th whisker spot on the second row. Instead of a square (like Uma) Kya’s top whisker spots form a little triangle on the right side of her face. This is unique to Kya and will always be a reliable way of identifying her throughout her life.
So how will this help you to identify the cubs when they are out on exhibit this spring? It probably won’t. Unless they are laying right up against the glass viewing and they aren’t moving and the whiskers on the right side of their face are clearly visible. Then you should be able to figure out which cub you’re looking at. But what’s more likely to happen is that as the cubs get older, they’ll grow and change and develop. Together, we’ll learn their personalities and their tendencies. And maybe with all the roughhousing and play-fighting, someone might even end up with a tell-tale scar on their nose or cheek. Hopefully, at some point, they will become very clearly distinguishable for everyone, but until then, we’ll just have to keep tabs and count whiskers.
Want to practice your whisker identification skills? Try comparing Uma’s and Kya’s left sides! What do you see? Which whisker spots are unique? Keep practicing and in just a couple short weeks, you can try your hand at identifying the cubs live and in person as they go on exhibit at the Cincinnati Zoo!
March 25, 2015 5 Comments
Last week, the Zoo’s Cat Ambassador Program and their ambassador ocelot, Sihil (pronounced C-L), traveled to Texas for the annual Ocelot Conservation Festival. Hosted by the the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), the Friends of Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge and the Gladys Porter Zoo, the Festival raises awareness about the endangered Texas ocelot and appeals to those who share their space with these pint-sized predators to protect them.
Did you know that ocelots still range up into the United States? Biologists estimate there are about 80 remaining and they live only in the southern tip of Texas. They are federally listed as endangered in the United States and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and partners work to protect them. Learn more from this infographic we created on saving the Texas ocelot:
This is the eighth year in row that Sihil and her trainers have participated in the Festival, and the second year that I’ve accompanied them. It’s a long drive to and from Brownsville, Texas, but Sihil is an old pro at traveling. She enjoys watching the landscape and other cars go by out the windows of the van, and she especially cherishes the one-on-one attention and extra treats and toys she receives from her trainers on the trip. The rest of the time, she sleeps like a typical cat would.
Over the two days we spent in Texas, we kept busy. The first order of business was a 6:00AM television appearance on the local Channel 4 news to highlight the Festival. Next up was an appearance at a seminar held at the University of Texas Pan American . This event featured several speakers who addressed ocelots and the issues they face. Dr. Michael Tewes, Regents Professor and Research Scientist at Texas A & M, discussed his work with ocelots in Willacy County. The Texas Department of Transportation discussed transportation issues and the importance of wildlife crossings. Dr. Hilary Swarts, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Biologist, discussed the status of and issues facing ocelots in Cameron County. Following the speakers, Sihil strutted her stuff for an audience of about 125 while her trainers, Alicia Sampson and Colleen Nissen, shared information.
After lunch (and a nap for Sihil), our next appearance was at the Cameron County Commissioner’s Office. Nearly 60 government employees learned about Texas ocelots and were treated to what was a first glimpse for most of a live ocelot when Sihil jumped up on the table in front of them. Since they are so rare in the wild, most South Texans have never seen a live ocelot up close and in person before.
That evening the Friends of Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge held its annual Ocelot Soiree fundraiser. Activities included live music, ocelot-themed appetizers, drinks, a live auction of ocelot-inspired art, a presentation by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and of course, an appearance by Sihil.
The next day was the official Ocelot Conservation Day, which kicked off with Ocelot 5K and 1K Runs. Many of the 600 runners really got into the ocelot spirit with the way they dressed.
The finish line brought the runners into the Glady Porter Zoo’s South Texas Discovery Center where the Ocelot Conservation Festival was held. Each runner received a very cool ocelot medal as a badge of their accomplishment and support for ocelots.
From 10:00AM to 4:00PM, more than 1,300 people stopped by the Festival, which featured information tables, fun activities and the chance to watch Sihil show off her climbing skills. Needless to say, she was a big hit and generated a lot of great questions from the audience.
So what is the current status of ocelots in Texas? Are we having an impact? Can the population survive? With the discovery of two young ocelots on the Laguna Atascosa Wildlife Refuge earlier this year, biologists are optimistic. We know the population is breeding. This summer, the Texas Department of Transportation will begin construction on 13 new wildlife crossings on roads where ocelots have been struck and killed in recent years. This is great news and should cut down on road mortality, the number one threat to the current Texas population. As U.S. Fish and Wildlife continues to protect and restore thorn scrub habitat required for ocelots, it is hoped that the current population can continue to expand. There is also a plan in the works to translocate an ocelot from Mexico to Texas in the future, which would bring much needed genetic diversity to our population.
What can we do to help save Texas ocelots here in Cincinnati? Come join the American Association of Zoo Keepers (AAZK) Greater Cincinnati Chapter in celebrating and raising funds for ocelots at our first Cinco de Gato event! Held at Barrio in Northside on May 8, a portion of the proceeds from food and beverage sales along with funds raised from raffle items and merchandise will go to the Friends of Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge to support ocelot conservation. Mark your calendar and look for more details to come later!
March 17, 2015 No Comments