Category — Exhibits
It’s hard to believe, but Gladys the gorilla turns three years old today! Since arriving at the Cincinnati Zoo as a one-month-old orphan, we have had one fun and fulfilling adventure with her. However, Gladys has a lot of adventures still to come on her long road to adulthood.
As with people, gorillas take a long time to grow up. For females, it takes about 10 years to mature, and for males, it takes 13 to 15 years! During these years, they go through several stages, each one building on the previous stage. Until they are three years old, gorillas are referred to as babies and they are dependent on their mothers for nourishment. They will start sampling solid foods by around one to three months old, but will nurse from mom for three to four years. The amount they nurse will gradually flip-flop with solid consumption over those years.
Gorillas are born with very little natural instincts. Unlike a snake or spider that pretty much know everything they will need to survive the second they hatch, gorillas have many learned skills they must acquire over many years. Gorillas have over 13 different vocalizations and inflections, along with many facial expressions and body postures that form a complex language. They start learning this language from day one. They have rules of social etiquette to learn as well as survival skills about where to go or not go, what to eat and what to embrace or fear. Baby gorillas build their motor skills and strength during this stage as well, all setting the foundation for the next phase.
Between three and six years old, a gorilla has pretty much moved out of the “baby” phase and is considered a juvenile. They are no longer dependent on their mothers for milk and rely solely on solid foods. Although they still need their mothers and families for comfort and protection at times, three-year-old gorillas have more confidence to explore even further and spend long periods away from mom. They enjoy a new level of relatively carefree freedom while learning a few harder life lessons along the way. Their personalities begin to become more defined during this stage.
Between six and 10 years old, gorillas are referred to as sub-adults. They are still not fully grown physically. The carefree playfulness of being a juvenile is augmented by more adult-like interactions and experiences. Sub-adults learn to shape breeding postures though regular wrestling and playing bouts, although females do not reproduce in the wild until they are about 10 years old. By now, they have very distinctive personalities formed by previous experiences that will greatly influence their futures. There is a clear hierarchy within gorilla society. The pecking order is set based on many factors including the status of their mothers, intelligence, physical size and political savvy. During the sub-adult stage, young gorillas work very hard to establish their social status through both positive interaction and aggression as they define their individuality even more.
By 10 years old, gorillas are considered adults. Females may have migrated from their natal groups to improve their social life with a new family. They become new mothers and begin teaching young gorillas how to become adults. At 10 years old, males most likely have been driven from their natal group by their father as they have become too rambunctious and challenging to the cohesiveness of the family. Ten-year-old males are keenly interested in breeding, but are not quite mature or physically impressive enough to attract females so they go through an extra stage called “blackback”. During this stage, blackbacks may live as solitary males or find other blackbacks to hang out with in a bachelor group, kind of like a gorilla YMCA.
By the age of 15 years, blackbacks have grown into their full size and are now called silverbacks. All male gorillas become silverbacks. Silverbacks, of course, get a silver coloration on their backs and develop large musculature on their heads. This enhanced sagittal crest and large body size, combined with a silverback’s specific personality, can attract females. Once a gorilla has reached a full silverback stage, he can acquire females in his group and start his own family.
So as Gladys reaches the juvenile gorilla stage milestone, it’s fun to review where she has been and look forward to what is in store on her long road to becoming an adult. We’ll watch her personality take further shape through positive and challenging life experiences. The bottom line is three years old is a great age to be a gorilla, especially when you have two younger sisters to go on the adventure with!
January 29, 2016 4 Comments
To celebrate everyone’s favorite feathered friends, let me introduce you to all five species of penguins that call the Cincinnati Zoo home:
The areas highlighted in yellow on the range maps show where each of these penguin species is found in the wild. As you can see, while all of our penguins hail from the Southern Hemisphere, not all of them live in cold, harsh climates. In fact, three out of the five species we have prefer the warmer weather of Africa, South America, and Australia/New Zealand. Believe it or not, there is even a tropical species that lives on the Equator; the Galapagos penguin (though we don’t exhibit that species at the Zoo).
You might think that climate change wouldn’t be a big problem for the warm weather penguins since they are already used to the heat. It’s true that the Antarctic species suffer directly from melting ice and the die-off of krill, their primary prey, but the African penguin may be in bigger trouble. Even though it lives in a warmer climate and doesn’t live on ice, the African penguin still relies on a cold ocean current to bring its favorite fish, sardines and anchovies, within reach. As the ocean temperature rises, the cold stream moves farther away from the islands off Africa where the penguins live and makes it more difficult to find enough food.
Add to that the threats of oil spills and guano collection, which disturbs natural nest sites, and you can see why the African penguin population has declined more than 60% in the past 30 years. That’s one reason why zoos are coming together to strengthen their efforts to save the African penguin.
The African penguin is one of 10 wildlife species the Association of Zoos & Aquariums (AZA) has committed to saving through the AZA SAFE initiative. Through AZA SAFE, AZA and its members will convene scientists and stakeholders to identify the threats, develop action plans, raise new resources and engage the public in saving the selected species.
A Conservation Action Plan is currently under development for the African penguin and will focus on the following actions:
- Develop appropriate types and numbers of artificial nests for all colonies; facilitate long-term monitoring to assess success.
- Expand monitoring of resident and reintroduced penguin inter-colony movement, nest site fidelity, and survival.
- Expand monitoring of penguin foraging and other movement patterns in the marine environment.
- Measure baseline environmental and animal-absorbed contaminant levels and conduct long-term monitoring to assess changes as oil drilling increases.
- Strengthen disaster response and penguin rescue and rehabilitation capabilities across all colonies.
In the last three years alone, 20 AZA-accredited zoos and aquariums contributed about $95,000 to African penguin conservation efforts, but we need to do more. That requires us to partner with organizations on the ground saving penguins in the field. One such organization is SANCCOB (the Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds), which the Cincinnati Zoo supports with funds raised from our Saving Species and VIPenguin Experience programs.
SANCCOB is a leading marine organization that has treated more than 90 000 oiled, ill, injured or abandoned African penguins and other threatened seabirds since being established in 1968. SANCCOB is an internationally recognized leader in oiled wildlife response, rehabilitation and chick-rearing; contributes to research which benefits seabirds; trains people to care for the birds and educates the public to appreciate this unique heritage. Independent research confirms that the wild African population is 19% higher directly due to SANCCOB’s efforts, and we are proud to work with them. Learn more about the great work they’re doing in this video.
January 20, 2016 No Comments
Every day at 11am and 2:30pm during Penguin Days, presented by FirstEnergy, you will find the zoo’s Aviculture Department leading the way during the Best Parade in America, the Penguin Parade! Our colony of King Penguins walk between the Wings of Wonder bird house and the entrance of the Children’s Zoo where they spend the day outside enjoying the winter weather. One common question that we get at almost every parade is “What are their names?” Here is a handy dandy list to help you out identifying each member of our colony the next time you are walking with us:
-Kyoto- Red. You can usually find Kyoto leading the group at each parade. He also marches to the beat of his own drum, especially when we walk near fresh snow or by the entrance to the Basecamp Café. Maybe he is a fan of green restaurants, since it is the greenest restaurant in the land.
-Charlemagne- Yellow. Charlemagne may be the youngest, but is by far the largest King in our colony. You can usually find him trying to keep up with his older brother Kyoto in the front of the parade.
-Martin Luther- Purple. Luther usually stays to the middle of the group during the parade. In my opinion, he is the best looking King out of the bunch.
-BB- Green. The only female of our group, you can find her bringing up the rear of the parade. She has successfully reared quite a few King chicks while here at the zoo, Kyoto and Charlemagne being two of them.
-Larry- Blue. While Luther might be the best looking King, Larry is definitely the most regal-looking. Watch him during the parade, and you will probably see him holding his chest out proudly and possibly even vocalize during the route. Larry and BB have incubated a few chicks together, see above; watch them while outside to see if they are performing any courtship behaviors. You can usually find Larry in the middle of the group as well.
-Burger- Orange. On rare occasions, you will find the elder statesman of the colony, Burger, out with the rest of the group. It doesn’t happen too often, but he usually decides to go on parade at least once per season, and likes to hang near the back of the parade.
Hopefully this list makes it a little easier for you to identify the birds during the Best Parade in America. Test your knowledge every day through the month of February at 11am and 230pm, as long as the temperature is below 50 degrees. The weather might be cold, but Penguin Days is a great way to get outside and enjoy the season while seeing some amazing animals while you are at it. Follow #BestParadeInAmerica and @cincinnatizoo on Twitter for updates!
January 13, 2016 3 Comments