Category — General Zoo
Welcoming Two New Post-Doctoral Fellows
Two new post-doctoral fellows, Dr. Lindsey Vansandt and Dr. Anne-Catherine Vanhove, were welcomed to CREW in the fall of 2014.
With funding support from the Joanie Bernard Foundation, Dr. Vansandt will be working with Dr. Bill Swanson, CREW’s Director of Animal Research. Dr. Vansandt obtained her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from the University of Missouri and her Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Maryland (in collaboration with the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute). Her Ph.D. studies focused on characterization and propagation of spermatogonial stem cells in domestic cats as a model for conserving endangered cat species. Dr. Vansandt also has experience working in veterinary emergency services. At CREW, she will be conducting studies to improve the health and welfare of feral and shelter cats as well as helping to apply oviductal AI for propagation of endangered felids.
With funding from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), Dr. Vanhove will be evaluating survival of plant samples in CREW’s Frozen Garden under the supervision of Dr. Valerie Pence, Director of Plant Research. Dr. Vanhove will complete the second phase of the IMLS project, focusing primarily on the survival of shoot tips and gametophytes after long-term storage in liquid nitrogen. She recently received her Ph.D. from the Division of Crop Biotechnics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, in Leuven, Belgium. Her thesis work with meristem culture, stress physiology, and cryopreservation makes her well suited for the IMLS project.
The University of Cincinnati/Cincinnati Zoo Connection
CREW has had a long-standing collaborative relationship with the University of Cincinnati’s (UC) Department of Biological Sciences, but today it is strengthened by two promising young scientists who split their time between CREW and UC. Corrina DeLorenzo and Megan Philpott are both enrolled in UC’s Ph.D. program under Drs. Ken Petren and Theresa Culley, respectively, but they are conducting much of their dissertation research at CREW.
Corrina earned her bachelor’s degree at Miami University, with a double major in Zoology and Environmental Science. As an undergraduate, she became involved in research evaluating the population genetics of the Italian wall lizard or “Lazarus lizard” in the Cincinnati area. After graduating, Corrina was accepted to CREW’s summer internship program, working with Dr. Erin Curry on the Polar Bear Signature Project. She was recruited into UC’s graduate program in January 2014. Since starting her Ph.D. research, Corrina has identified multiple antibodies that detect specific proteins in polar bear feces in an effort to develop a polar bear pregnancy test.
Megan received her bachelor’s degree from UC in Biology and was also an intern at the Cincinnati Museum Center, managing the Museum’s Philippine Bird Genetics project. Her Ph.D. research is part of the Plant Lab’s IMLS funded project to evaluate samples that have been stored for years in CREW’s CryoBioBank for genetic changes that might have occurred over time. In April, Megan was awarded the Botanical Society of America’s Public Policy award to attend Congressional Visits Day on Capitol Hill. There, she learned about communicating science to policy makers and met with the offices of Ohio Senators and Representatives to request their support for increased federal funding of scientific research, using CREW’s research as an example of the importance of federal funding and support. (Students supported by the UC Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Museum and Library Services and CREW Eisenberg Fellowship.)
P&G Wildlife Conservation Scholars
In 2011, CREW established a partnership with the Ohio State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine to train veterinary students in conservation sciences with funding support from Procter & Gamble Pet Care. This past summer, two OSU veterinary students, Kelly Vollman and JaCi Johnson, were selected as P&G Wildlife Conservation Scholars.
Kelly worked with Dr. Monica Stoops analyzing urinary testosterone and glucocorticoid concentrations to determine if the pattern of excretion could be used to predict gender, parturition date and assess fetal viability during Indian rhino gestation. Kelly analyzed urine samples collected throughout seven Indian rhino pregnancies that resulted in three male and four female calves. Six of the pregnancies ended with the birth of live calves, whereas one pregnancy ended in a stillbirth, a relatively common occurrence in this rhino species. By learning more about the endocrinology of pregnancy, results from Kelly’s study will help establish physiological markers to improve pregnancy outcome in this species.
JaCi worked with Dr. Bill Swanson to investigate cat sperm vitrification as an alternative to standard slow freezing methods. Vitrification involves ultra-rapid cooling to avoid ice crystal formation and form a “glass” instead. For this study, JaCi collected semen from domestic cats (and one ocelot) and compared vitrification in a sucrose solution, with direct pelleting in liquid nitrogen, to slow freezing with glycerol in straws over liquid nitrogen vapor. Post-thaw sperm motility and acrosome status were similar between methods and 25% of domestic cat oocytes were fertilized following insemination with vitrified
sperm. This simplified approach to cat semen preservation may be particularly useful for field biologists working with felids in the wild.
November 21, 2014 No Comments
Imani and John are parents! On Thursday, November 13th, African lion Imani gave birth to 3 beautiful, healthy cubs.
I could tell the minute I walked into the lion building that it was the big day! Before I explain myself, here’s a little background on the set-up in our lion holding area: Every night for the last week or so, we’ve kept John separated from Imani in order to provide her a safe and secure denning area for birthing. We had, however, been allowing John to “visit” with Imani in the mornings to maintain their bond. Most mornings, that meant that John and Imani would lounge around in the same holding together with John staring at Imani for long periods of time and Imani napping on the floor. On Thursday morning, however, our pair was having some very different and confused interactions.
Imani was really active, going from one holding to another and spending a lot of time rubbing on the mesh, and shift doors. She seemed to be irritated, uncomfortable and oddly affectionate all at once! She even presented herself to John a couple of times and when he tried to mount her, she swung around and smacked him in the face! Then she followed him around the holding and nipped him on the side a couple of times, as if to say “You’re the reason I feel like this!” Poor John was pretty bewildered by her behavior, but I knew exactly what that behavior meant. As females get closer to delivering their cubs, they will begin to show less tolerance for the male’s presence in their den area. In other words, the labor process was getting started and Imani felt it was time for John to go “sit in the waiting room”. ;) So we shifted him across the hall into his own holdings and secured Imani into her private and cozy birthing den.
She seemed to relax a little bit now that John was safely away from her, but she still appeared quite uncomfortable. From our video monitors, we observed lots of tail smacking, changing positions constantly, licking her abdomen and genital area, and just general discomfort. This behavior continued throughout the morning and early afternoon. Then, at 3:28pm, we saw Imani jump up make a lap around her enclosure, and a tiny paw was visible sticking out under her tail! Imani looked so freaked out and confused with that first cub; “what in the world is happening?!” was written on her face. She did this frantic spin move and the little cub practically came flying out of her! Thankfully, she began cleaning it up immediately and we could see that it was moving around! Everyone breathed a big sigh of relief and continued to watch the monitors anxiously.
We could see Imani having contractions leading up to the second birth. Her abdomen would tense and her back would arch. It was more than 2 hours before the second cub was born at 5:45pm. This time, Imani seemed much less surprised by the process and she delivered the second cub quite easily. As before, she cleaned this one up and even scooted it over into the same area with its sibling. She then laid down in front of both of them and that was the first time we noticed how exhausted she looked. She tried to stay awake, but her eyelids kept shutting and she finally just laid her head in the straw for a quick nap as the new cubs rooted around and began their first attempts at nursing.
37 minutes after the arrival of the second cub, Imani was sprawled out and looked completely asleep as the 2 little lions fumbled around trying to figure out how to nurse. Then all of a sudden, her body produced a large contraction and just like that, the third cub was half-way out! Poor Imani shot out of her laying position and spun around to lick herself just as the third cub came out. She seemed the most disturbed by that third and final birth. She even sent a half-hearted hiss in the direction of the 3rd cub and didn’t clean it right away. It seemed like she was irritated that this 3rd baby had aroused her from such a deep sleep with no warning at all! She must have forgiven it though, because she finally went over to clean it up and welcome it to the world.
The keeper and curator staff continued to watch over Momma and her babies for the next 6 hours to make sure that all the cubs had been delivered and the labor was finished. It was amazing to see how mobile the cubs were right from the beginning. They instinctively began crawling and searching for Imani’s teats to start nursing. Similarly, it was so impressive to watch Imani’s maternal instincts kick into gear. She was so gentle maneuvering around the cubs, cautious and aware of each of them in the nesting area. She laid on her side and even held her leg up so that the babies could easily access her milk. Slowly, but surely, one after another, all three cubs had latched onto a nipple and Imani lay cooperatively and unmoving so that they could eat.
Imani has been such an attentive and gentle mother. She’s grooming each of them regularly and stimulating them to go to the bathroom (as she should). She isn’t entirely comfortable with picking up the cubs yet. Early on she tried with one cub and it started wiggling around frantically so she dropped it and just looked confused. On one occasion, the group of 3 wound up spread out all over the holding area and it was almost comical reading Imani’s facial expressions. She was clearly annoyed that her wriggly babies had wondered so far from each other, making it difficult for her to keep track of them all. She went over to the cub farthest away from the other two and gently picked it up in her mouth around its head and shoulders. She brought it out onto the heated concrete area near the other two cubs and used her paws to scoot them all together into a lump of baby lions. Then she laid down right in front of them as if to say “The nipples are right here! Don’t go wandering off again!”
She’s doing so well, and I know you all would be proud of her! It’s been amazing to watch this new and gentle side of Imani emerge as she takes care of her cubs. So far, all three cubs have been nursing regularly and spending most of their time sleeping. They go on little adventures now and then (mostly crawling over Momma and each other). So far, all indications point towards happy and healthy babies, but we’re not out of the woods yet. The first few weeks of their lives are absolutely crucial and keepers are taking care to give Imani plenty of privacy and alone time with the babies. It will be a while before we are able to go in and perform the cubs’ first wellness exams and determine genders.
We will do our best to keep everyone informed about John and Imani’s new family in the weeks to come!! In order to give Imani and the cubs the privacy and bonding time they need, keepers will be staying pretty hands-off for a little while. For this reason, our lion cub coverage will be pretty limited to “screen shots” from the video monitors, but as soon as we feel Imani is comfortable enough with our presence, we’ll try to get some good pics and video of our new additions! As always, thank you so much for all of your love, support and understanding during this special time! So excited to have 3 new lions at the Cincinnati Zoo!
November 19, 2014 3 Comments
One of the world’s smallest cats, the black-footed cat is found only in the southern African countries of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa. It lives in dry, open habitats such as desert, savanna and scrubland. Due to its extremely shy and evasive nature, little is known regarding the black-footed cat’s status in the wild, though it is considered to be the rarest cat in Africa.
The black-footed cat is one of the five small cat species with which the Zoo’s Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW) works on its Small Cat Signature Project. In addition to conducting zoo-based research on the reproductive biology of the black-footed cat, the Zoo also supports field research in South Africa.
Since 2004, a group of scientists and veterinarians working together as the Black-Footed Cat Working Group (BFCWG) (http://black-footed-cat.wild-cat.org/) have been studying black-footed cats in South Africa. The BFCWG aims to conserve this rare cat species by furthering awareness and conducting multidisciplinary research on the species’ biology, distribution, ecology, health, and reproduction over an extended period.
Once a cat is captured, researchers take a variety of measurements and samples are taken and fit a radio collar. Over time, this generates valuable data regarding the behavior, ecology, genetics, and health of the wild black-footed cat population.
Additionally, sperm collected from wild males can be imported into the United States (once frozen) and used to artificially inseminate captive females to infuse genetic diversity into the captive population.
This November, the Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden helped to send Dr. Jason Herrick, a former post-doctoral fellow with the Zoo now working with the National Foundation for Fertility Research and as a Research Associate with the Denver Zoo, to South Africa to capture and replace radio collars on five male black-footed cats. At the same time, he is taking measurements and collecting samples.
November 17, 2014 No Comments