Category — General Zoo
Everyone is familiar with primates like gorillas, monkeys and even lemurs, but not too many people know of the potto. So what’s a potto, you say? Pottos are prosimians, which are primitive primates, not as highly evolved as monkeys but sharing many of the same characteristics (fingernails and toenails, stereoscopic vision, forward facing eyes, etc.). Some other prosimians include lemurs, lorises, bushbabies, tarsiers and aye-ayes.
The Cincinnati Zoo is one of very few zoos around the world to exhibit pottos, not because they are endangered, but more because of their nocturnal way of life. Many zoos do not have a building like our Night Hunters exhibit in which the day / night light cycle is reversed. This allows us to exhibit nocturnal creatures under subdued blue lighting during the time our guests visit and then fill the exhibits with white lighting when our guests have left.
In early 2014, there were only 16 pottos in four zoos in the United States—Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Milwaukee County Zoo, Franklin Park Zoo and Cincinnati Zoo, of course. We have maintained pottos in our collection since the mid-1960s when we first opened the former Nocturnal House. We have been one of the top breeders of these African primates and we currently have seven pottos at the Zoo. Recently, it became clear that if we wanted to keep these charismatic animals in U.S. zoo collections, then we needed to have a plan to maximize the potential of our small population with regards to breeding and to also recruit more zoos to commit to exhibiting them as the potto population grew.
The Mammal Curators of the zoos holding pottos were all on board with the desire to continue to work with this species. The pedigree information of the U.S. population of pottos was run through a computer software program that provided us with the best possible pairings from our small group in order to maximize genetic diversity. From that information it became clear that in order to achieve our goal, 12 of the 16 pottos needed to move in order to create the pairings recommended. We also needed one more facility to join us to provide the extra space needed to ultimately put together the seven potential breeding pairs indicated by our “computer dating” service. The Henry Doorly Zoo in Omaha, Nebraska stepped up to become the fifth zoo in the U.S. to maintain pottos.
By mid-summer, the five zoos had committed to making the necessary moves to have all the transfers completed before cold weather might become an issue for transportation. Of the six animals we originally had here in Cincinnati, four have transferred to other zoos while five new pottos arrived. We now have three pairs as well as a young male who will serve as a companion animal to an aging bamboo lemur. The other zoos involved with pottos will either have one pair (Cleveland Metroparks Zoo and the Henry Doorly Zoo) or two pairs (Franklin Park Zoo). The Milwaukee County Zoo, which is now holding a single young female potto, is attempting to import a young male potto from Africa, which will provide new genetics to our population as well as provide us with yet another pair of animals for breeding.
It has been very gratifying to see how well the five zoos have worked so quickly and cooperatively towards our common goal to maintain a healthy potto population. Though the potto may not be an endangered species, we would hate to lose this charismatic creature from our collections. Many Cincinnatians have met our potto, Gabriel, at the Zoo or at events around the city. I like to think that it’s because of this ambassador animal that more Cincinnatians know what a potto is than people in any other part of the country.
October 9, 2014 No Comments
The Zoo has been committed to saving the Sumatran rhino for 25 years. We work closely with the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, the Indonesian Rhino Foundation, the IUCN Asian Rhino Specialist Group and the International Rhino Foundation, to protect this species in the wild, and also propagate Sumatran rhinos in captivity. Despite the devastating blow of the loss of our female rhino, Suci, back in March, the Zoo continues to work to conserve and protect the species.
Considered the most endangered of all rhino species, and perhaps the most endangered large mammal on Earth, it is estimated that no more than 100 Sumatran rhinos remain in Indonesia. The primary cause of the species’ decline is the loss of forests due to oil palm, logging and human encroachment, even in some national parks, and poaching for its horn, which some Asian cultures believe contains medicinal properties. Today, there are only nine Sumatran rhinos living in captivity worldwide.
Just last week, a Debt-for-Nature deal was struck between the United States and Indonesia. In return for lowering the debt Indonesia owes to the United States, Indonesia will commit nearly $12 million towards the conservation and protection of critically endangered species, including the Sumatran rhino, and their habitats over the next seven years. The debt swap was made possible by a contribution of about $11.2 million from the U.S. government under the Tropical Forest Conservation Act and $560,000 from other organizations funneled through Conservation International. The Zoo was proud to help secure this funding by pledging a major gift.
Exactly how the funds will be distributed and applied over the next five or so years is yet to be determined, but the strategies are likely to include 1)establishing intensive management zones in national parks, 2) translocating any rhinos that remain outside of protected areas, 3) integrating high-tech methodologies for rhino censusing and anti-poaching efforts, 4) engaging local communities in intelligence operations and 5) providing economic benefits to communities through environmentally- farming practices.
This Debt-for-Nature swap comes at a critical time in determining the future of Indonesia, its wildlife and its people. One of the most bio-diverse regions on the planet, Indonesia also has one of the highest human populations, placing its habitats and inhabitants under tremendous pressure.
October 6, 2014 2 Comments
If you are a frequent visitor to the Zoo, you might have noticed a new addition to our Andean condor exhibit as of late. With the tremendous help of some extremely dedicated volunteers, the Aviculture Department was able to research, help build, and install a nesting chamber for our breeding pair of Andean condors.
Background on the birds:
Like other vultures, Andean condors act as nature’s recyclers! Befitting their role of scavengers, condors have several physical adaptations to help them clean up the environment. Their strong, hooked beaks aid in holding and ripping food, while the lack of a well-feathered head minimizes contamination when dining upon carcasses. Not-so-obvious on the outside, the condor’s extremely strong and resilient digestive system is able to break down bone to obtain much-needed calcium as well as to kill the toxic bacteria that cause anthrax and botulism. All of these facets certainly reveal the condor’s important role in maintaining healthy, well-balanced environments.
Like many other long-lived (over 70 years) and slow-breeding (one chick every other year) species, however, the Andean condor is having some trouble keeping its own population in balance in the wild. It was first listed by CITES as endangered on July 1, 1975. Andean condors are currently listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. This species historically had a significant range in South America, from Colombia and Venezuela to the Strait of Magellan and Tierra del Fuego. They are exceedingly rare in the northern ranges of South America, and are most frequently sighted in Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile and Argentina. The condor is still subject to persecution by poisoning and gunshot over most of its home range, and it has been historically difficult to monitor the population in the wild according to the AZA Andean Condor Care Manual (2010).
The Cincinnati Zoo has participated in conservation efforts involving both the Andean condor and its even rarer cousin, the California condor, since 1989. Along with participating in the captive breeding program, the Zoo has also served as a staging area for North American-hatched Andean condors destined for release in their native country of Colombia. Juvenile condors and breeding pairs are housed at our off-site facility where they are conditioned for release into the wild. In the summer of 2013, a breeding pair of Andean condors was transported from the Zoo’s off-site facility to Miami, Florida, where they boarded a plane bound for Colombia. We have been ecstatic to hear reports from the Andean Condor Species Survival Plan that birds we have held here at the Zoo have produced chicks in the wild!
How can we increase the chances our condors here in Cincinnati will have a family of their own? Both of our birds – “Laurel” and “Gryph” – celebrated their 32nd birthdays this past June, so they are well within breeding age. They have lived in their display overlooking Wildlife Canyon since 2008, so should be well-settled. (Note: They first came to us when they were very young, left the Zoo in 1998, and then returned to us in 2008.) Since that time, we have recorded a lot of success with pair-bonding and copulating, and even with laying at least one egg per year, but unfortunately this pair has never successfully hatched out and raised a chick.
The idea of building a large protective nesting box that could mimic the wild cliffside caves the birds prefer as well as reduce the chances of egg breakage during the incubation process was formulated.
Background on the box:
Andean condors typically stand around four feet tall and can weigh up to 33 pounds. Thanks to its massive wingspan of 10.5 feet, this species can rightly claim the title of the largest flying land bird in the Western Hemisphere. Taking their overall size, enormous wingspan, and hooked flesh-tearing beak all into consideration, I knew this would need to be –by far– the largest and strongest nesting box we had ever embarked upon the creation of here at the Cincinnati Zoo!
Research and guidance provided by Aviculture Curator Robert Webster was critical in the development of a blueprint for our new Condor Condo. With a game plan in place, lumber, hardware and stain was purchased and transported to our most crafty carpenter, Mr. Bill Rettig, one of the Zoo’s Bird House and Manatee dive volunteers extraordinaire.
Bill worked out of his basement and garage during the construction process, while his wife generously gave up her indoor parking space! He also enlisted the help of several other family members and neighbors in the nest box building and installation process. Lucky for him, there are several engineers and mathematicians in the family. With the completed project weighing in easily over 300 lbs and measuring over six feet wide and six feet tall, this was truly a group effort!
What the keepers will be looking for this winter:
As part of their mating rituals, Andean condors typically perform courtship displays such as walking back and forth with outstretched wings and making hissing and clucking sounds. The male usually initiates this ritualized courtship display, approaching the female with his body upright, his neck arched, inflated and more intensely flushed with red, and with his wings fully open in a forward-curving arc. He walks stiffly, swaying from side to side. Initially he may make a hissing sound, similar to air brakes on a truck, followed by a deep, repetitive drumming sound that has been compared to a helicopter. If the female is interested, she will remain near him and may bite at his neck or wings, although not aggressively. Females may also engage in the wings-out courtship display, although typically not as elaborately or for as long as the male.
Andean condors are sequentially monogamous in the wild, often remaining with the same mate indefinitely. Eggs may be laid between March and June and fertility for established pairs is typically very high. Males and females share both egg incubation and chick rearing duties roughly equally. The egg incubation period for this species is 58-62 days.
Special thanks to Bill for his undying enthusiasm for this project, and his family for jumping in to help without question, even though nest box installation was a stinky, sweaty, tough job! Ultimately, success in collective Andean condor management and care will allow AZA-accredited institutions to contribute to Andean condor conservation and to ensure that Andean condors are helping to clean up the Earth we all share for generations to come.
September 23, 2014 No Comments