Modified from an article written by Jackie Bray, Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden, and Tamsin Orr-Walker, Chairperson, Kea Conservation Trust
The Zoo supports the conservation of kea, the world’s only alpine parrot species, in New Zealand through the efforts of the Kea Conservation Trust (KCT). Fewer than 5,000 kea remain and face threats such as conflict with people, loss of habitat, lead poisoning, predation by introduced invasive species such as stoats, brush-tailed possums, cats and rats, and unintentional by-kill by poisons used to control these invasive species.
One strategy of the KCT to conserve kea in their natural environment involves the protection of nesting sites. During the past breeding season (July 2014 to January 2015), video trail cameras were used to monitor nest sites and document breeding activity and conflict events.
A total of 33 female keas were monitored over five research sites, resulting in five successful nests producing 12 chicks, which is more than were documented in previous years.
Once active nest sites were identified, cameras were placed at the entrance to monitor breeding activity, predator visitation and chick development. A series of predator control traps were also deployed around the nesting areas to help protect the birds until the chicks fledged. The cameras documented several nests being visited by predators. KCT used this information to extend trapping systems, resulting in decreased predator visitation.
The cameras also provided valuable information on kea survivorship and repellent effectiveness during the New Zealand Department of Conservation’s (NZ DOC) scheduled 1080 poison drops in the Kahurangi National Park. In 2014, New Zealand experienced an intensive mast (seeding) event which resulted in a significant increase in numbers of mice, rats and stoats. A previous major mast in 2002-2003 appears to have been the cause of an 80% decline in kea numbers at Nelson Lakes. Current population numbers could not sustain another such event, making the widespread use of 1080 poison necessary. The kea’s inquisitive nature makes them more likely than other native avian species to investigate the poison baits, so the use of chemical kea repellents in the 1080 baits is being studied to reduce unintentional by-kill. Unfortunately Ceejay, one of the most productive females in the area, was found dead after ingesting 1080 poison.
The cameras also proved useful in March 2015, when keas were blamed for damaging bicycles and other property in a residential area. Cameras set up in the area were able to capture noisy nighttime activity (which was attributed to kea) generated by at least two possums and three cats on multiple occasions. One possum was actually caught on camera damaging property. The cameras helped defuse conflict between community members and the kea by allowing the KCT to accurately document conflict events.
Video trail cameras have provided the KCT with an incredible amount of valuable data which has been used to protect kea nesting sites and mitigate several human-kea conflict situations. The cameras also significantly reduced the amount of hours necessary for personnel to spend in the field collecting data, allowing the saved resources to be used in other conservation projects.
June 26, 2015 1 Comment
Do you know Moe? You should! She is the star of the Discovery Forest exhibit in our Education Center. As a two-toed sloth, Moe spends her days hanging out in her favorite tree. While she does rest a lot (she is a sloth, after all), Moe can be quite active at times and she is very curious.
Moe has become a favorite with the thousands of kids and families that participate in Education programs and camps. You can’t come and go to Summer Camp without passing by to say hello and good-bye to Moe. At the end of the day, Moe climbs down a special ladder made just for her into the arms of one of her keepers, who carries her to a behind-the-scenes suite for the night.
These days, Moe is doing more with her celebrity status beyond inspiring our guests. She and her keepers are helping to save sloths in the wild. Between April and October, guests can schedule a private, up close 30-minute encounter with Moe and her keepers. A portion of the proceeds from the ‘Moe’mentous Sloth Encounter support The Sloth Institute Costa Rica (TSI) and its mission to ensure a peaceful coexistence between sloths and people.
The Sloth Institute (TSI) was established in August of 2014 by Sam Trull and Seda Sejud to enhance the well being of captive and wild sloths through research and education. In collaboration with Kids Saving the Rainforest (KSTR), TSI helps to rescue, rehabilitate and release the sloths of Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica. In the area near Manuel Antonio National Park, one of Costa Rica’s smallest yet most popular tourist destinations, roads and development have fragmented the natural forest habitat, increasing the threats to the very wildlife people come to see. The most common injuries to sloths are electrocutions from touching electrical wires and orphans separated from their mothers. Sloths are also vulnerable to vehicle strikes and dog attacks when they descend from the trees. In addition, TSI helps KSTR hand-rear baby sloths that are orphaned because the mother abandoned them or the mother was injured or killed. Sloths can be very difficult to raise due to their sensitivity to infection and incomplete information on what wild sloths need to survive.
When possible, the goal is to rehabilitate and release the sloths that are healthy and capable enough to survive and thrive again in the wild. In order to monitor each individual’s success post release, TSI plans to fit each sloth with a tracking device that will allow them to be monitored post-release and contribute to knowledge about sloth ecology and how to successfully raise and release orphaned and injured sloths.
TSI is beginning its first release project of 2 two-toed and 2 three-toed sloths. The release process involves selecting and obtaining permits for an appropriate forested area for the release that is safe from development, electric wires and cars. Once a site is secured, the sloths will be transferred from the KSTR rescue center to a soft-release enclosure in the forest to let them get used to their new environment. During this time, TSI will provide leaves from the forest to get the sloths more used to the diet found at the release site while still supplementing them with captive food. After about a month, TSI will open the door, allowing the sloths access to the surrounding forest. They will be able to choose when to explore the outside world. This “soft release” gives the sloths as much time as they need to get used to their new environment and learn how to find food before going off completely on their own, which is the most appropriate method for hand-raised orphans that require a lot of maternal investment.
With funding from the Cincinnati Zoo, TSI was able to purchase four of the VHF tracking collars for this project. Fitted with the collars, the sloths can be tracked around the clock to collect behavioral data, locational data and health status information. Simultaneously, TSI will also track wild sloths for comparison and to provide parameters for evaluating the success of the release.
Furthermore, TSI will also start a long-term field station for studying wild sloths in Manuel Antonio. They hope to learn more about sloth ecology in this region of Costa Rica, including information on diets, home range, carrying capacity, health status and social structure.
Keep up with the latest happenings at TSI through its Sloth Diaries blog, and consider supporting sloths in the wild by booking your own Sloth Encounter at the Zoo. And next time you’re at the Zoo, be sure to stop into the Education Center to say hello to Moe.
June 15, 2015 1 Comment
Today we celebrate Samantha the gorilla’s 45th birthday!
There are about four reptiles living at the Zoo today that have estimated ages older than Samantha, but she is the oldest animal with a confirmed birth date and the oldest non-reptile. Daughter of the legendary founder gorillas King Tut and Penelope, Samantha was born here on January 31, 1970. She and another gorilla, Sam, were born about a week apart and they were the first two gorilla babies born and raised at the Cincinnati Zoo. They were hand raised with the assistance of Good Samaritan Hospital, hence the names Sam and Samantha.They were huge celebrities featured in dozens of articles, photos, postcards and fanfare.
Samantha has been here to experience all of the changes in philosophy that have transformed the Zoo from an old school menagerie to a modern day zoo. Born in the old Ape House in 1970 where the gorillas lived inside year round, Samantha moved to the first naturalistic outdoor gorilla habitat anywhere, Gorilla World, in 1978.
She has experienced innovations in animal nutrition from a high fruit-based diet to today’s high variety bulky green fiber-rich nutritionally balanced diet. She has also experienced the start of comprehensive animal enrichment efforts at the Zoo that provide for animal welfare as much as their physical needs. Over 10 years ago, she was here when we began formal operant conditioning programs at the Zoo as well.
Samantha has also experienced the change over from primarily pulling baby gorillas for hand-rearing to encouraging mother-rearing through improved husbandry and social behavior management. She is the best mother gorilla in the history of the Zoo and has given birth to six gorillas. Samantha’s first daughter, Madge, was born in the early 1980s. She was named after the late great iconic long time Zoo Volunteer Madge Van Buskirk.
Probably the most intelligent gorilla at the Zoo, Samantha is one of the most socially savvy gorillas, too. She has long been the strong matriarchal leader no matter which individuals are in her group. Samantha has lived with over 36 individual gorillas including: Sam, Gigi, Ramses, Kamari, Amani, Rosie, Penelope, Hatari, Tara, Mahari, Bibi, Madge, Muke, Mlinzi, Babec, Ndume, Kweli, Harry, Jackie, Tufani, Colossus, Kima Kubwa, Chaka, Samson, Chewie, Mara, Kijito, Kicho, Cecil, Shanta, Jomo, Bakari, Asha, Anju, Gladys and Mondika. In recent years, she has toned her leadership role back some, but is still respected among the other gorillas.
Samantha has served as an inspirational ambassador for both ex situ and in situ gorilla conservation programs and she is revered among the primate staff and her followers. I even named my daughter after her. (By the way, if you ever should name your daughter after a gorilla, apparently you should not tell her fourth grade class that fact during a visit to the Zoo. I thought it was cool, but being called “gorilla girl” by mean little boys can be a hard thing to live with, I hear.)
At 45 years old, Samantha still seems to be going strong. She is engaged in all of our programs, including operant conditioning, and is one of the best students. In recent years, she has been trained for awake cardiac ultrasound exams and the ticker is looking good. Samantha has seen it all and hopefully she sticks around for a long while to see a whole lot more.
January 31, 2015 2 Comments